Pharmacology II describes the physiology of autonomic nervous system endocrine system, reproductive system, and immune system.  It will enable the learner to understand the various chemical mediators and chemical transmission process involved in the nervous system.  The unit emphasizes on the pharmacology of drugs acting on central and autonomic nervous system endocrine system, reproductive system, immune system and skeletal system.

Topics covered in lectures include the theoretical and practical understanding of various bases used in semisolid preparations and their properties, packaging and labelling of powders and semisolids. To familiarise with the displacement value and the calculations of the quantity of base required. To enable the students on the processing, administration and storing of human blood products. To describe various pharmaceutical incompatibilities. Practicals include dispensing of powders and semi solid dosage forms.

Topics covered in lectures include the structure and function of basic classes of biological molecules, metabolism and the biosynthesis. Emphasis is on the integration and regulation of the metabolic path ways of biomolecules. The practical course will give the importance of enzymes and biomolecules in the pathological findings of various disease conditions.

Topics covered in lectures include the theory of resonance, electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions, heterocyclic chemistry, poly nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, medicinally important heteroaromatic compounds, carboxylic acids, amines, and phenols.

UNIT 1 (CLO1, CLO2, and CLO3)

PH, BUFFERS AND ISOTONIC SOLUTIONS

§  Sorensen’s pH determinations, applications,

§  Buffer equation, buffer capacity, buffers in pharmaceutical and biological systems, applications, buffered isotonic solutions.                                                                                                                                      

UNIT 2 (CLO1, CLO2, and CLO3)

SOLUBILITY PHENOMENA

§  Solvent –solute interactions,

§  Solubility of gas in liquids, solubility of liquids in liquids.

§  Solubility of solids in liquids: Definitions, determinations, factors influencing the solubility.

UNIT 3 (CLO1 and CLO2)

INTERFACIAL PHENOMENON

§  Liquid interfaces, adsorption at liquid/solid interfaces, adsorption isotherms

§  Concept of contact angle, hydrophilic- lipophilc balance, spreading coefficient

§  Gibb’s adsorption equation, electrical properties of interfaces

UNIT 4 (CLO1 and CLO2)

DIFFUSION AND DISSOLUTION

§  Steady state diffusion, types of diffusion, diffusion equation, diffusion cells Dissolution of tablets and capsules

§  Dissolution apparatus; factors affecting dissolution                                                                                             

UNIT 5 (CLO1, CLO2, and CLO3)

RHEOLOGY

§  Newtonian and Non-newtonian systems

§  Thixotropy, determinations of rheological properties (Single and multipoint instruments)

§  Applications to pharmacy                                                                                                                                        

UNIT 6 (CLO1, CLO2, and CLO3)

MICROMERITICS

§  Particle size distribution

§  Methods for determining particle size

§  Shape and surface area

§  Derived properties of powders

UNIT 7 (CLO1, CLO2, and CLO3)

COARSE DISPERSIONS: SUSPENSIONS

§  Definition, classification

§  Settling in Suspension, wetting

§  Controlled flocculation – flocculation in structured vehicles, Rheological consideration, preparation, physical stability and evaluation of suspensions.                      

UNIT 8 (CLO1, CLO2, and CLO3)

EMULSIONS

§  Formulation of emulsions-instability of emulsions, evaluation of emulsion stability

§  Selection of emulsifying agents based on HLB values

§  Rheology of emulsions, micro-emulsions, multiple emulsions  

UNIT 9 (CLO1 and CLO2)

COLLOIDS    

§  Definition types, preparation, purification, stabilization of colloids

§  Properties, optical properties, kinetic properties, electrical properties

UNIT 10 (CLO4)

Manufacturing difficulties and Stability issues of disperse systems

No

 

Subject Details

1

Name of Course/Module

PHYSICAL PHARMACY

2

Course Code

BPS 2133

3

Name(s) of academic staff

Mdm. Poonguzhali/ Dr. Abdullah Khan

4

Rationale for the inclusion of the course/module in the programme

  • To enable the learner to develop an understanding of concepts of pH, buffer, solubility, interfacial tension, surface tension, micromeritics and rheological properties and their application in development of disperse systems such as suspension, emulsions and colloids.

5

Semester and Year offered

Year 2, Semester 1

6

Total Student Learning Time (SLT)

Face to Face

Non-Face to Face

SLT

 

 

 

L=Lecture

T=Tutorial

P=Practical

FC-Flipped classroom

O=Others

 

L

T/FC

P

O

L

T/FC

P

O

21

 

T-9

FC-3

 

12

7

42

 

T-9

FC-9

 

3

7

L-63
T- 18

FC-12
P- 15

O-14

 

Total-122

7

Credit Value

 

3

8

Prerequisite (if any)

 

Nil

9

Learning outcomes:

Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to

§  Describe the concepts of pH, solubility, particle size analysis, viscosity and disperse systems (PLO1, C2)

§  Solve the calculations related to pH, solubility, particle size distribution viscosity and disperse systems (PLO1, C3)

§  Measure the pH, solubility, particle size and flow properties and viscosity of solutions and disperse systems (PLO2, P3)

§  Demonstrate the problems in the manufacturing and stability of disperse systems (PLO 6, C3)

10

Transferable Skills:

 

MQF LO 6: Problem solving and scientific skills

11

 

 

 

 

 

Teaching-learning and assessment strategy

Learning Outcome

Teaching and Learning Strategy

Assessment Strategy

CLO1

Lecture, Tutorials

Written Exam

CLO 2

Lecture, Tutorial

Written Exam

CLO 3

Practical

Practical Report, OSPE

CLO 4

Flipped classroom

Presentation

12

Synopsis

The topics covered include the physico-chemical properties of drug molecules such as pH, solubility, interfacial phenomena, diffusion and dissolution, rheology, micromeritics and study of disperse systems.

13

Mode of Delivery

Lecture, Tutorial, Practical, Flipped classroom

14

Assessment Methods and Types

 

CLO

TLA

F2F + NF2F

Assessment

 (%)

Percentage

CLO 1

Lecture & Tutorial

L : 9.5 + 19 = 28.5
T: 3.5+3.5 = 7

Test:0.5+0.5=1
Finals:1.25+1.25=2.5

Total: 39

 

Written Exam

39/122

= 32%

 

Final Exam (MCQ, MEQ)

 

Test

 

25 %


 

5%

CLO 2

Lecture & Tutorial

L : 11.5 + 23 = 34.5
T: 5.5+5.5 = 11

Test:0.5+0.5=1
Finals:1.75+1.75=3.5

Total: 50

 

Written Exam

50/122

=41%

Final Exam (MCQ, MEQ)

 

Test

35%

 

 

 

5%

CLO 3

Practical

P: 12+3=15

OSPE: 3 +3 = 6

Total :21

OSPE

Report

21/122

= 17%

OSPE

Report

10%

10%

CLO 4

Flipped Classroom

 

FC: 3+9=12

 

Total = 12

 

Presentation

12/122

= 10%

Presentation

10%

TOTAL

 

100%

15

Mapping of the course/module to the Programme Aims

Course/Module

PEO 1

PEO 2

PEO 3

PEO 4

PEO 5

PHYSICAL PHARMACY

X

 

 

X

 

16

Mapping of the course/module to the Programme Learning Outcomes

PLO1

PLO2

PLO3

PLO4

PLO5

PLO6

PLO7

PLO8

X

X

 

 

 

X

 

 

17

Content outline of the course/module and the SLT per topic

 

Topic

Hour

Lecture

Tutorial/FC

Practical

Others

UNIT 1 (CLO1, CLO2, and CLO3)

PH, BUFFERS AND ISOTONIC SOLUTIONS

§  Sorensen’s pH determinations, applications,

§  Buffer equation, buffer capacity, buffers in pharmaceutical and biological systems, applications, buffered isotonic solutions.                                                                                                                                      

 

2

 

T-1

 2

-

UNIT 2 (CLO1, CLO2, and CLO3)

SOLUBILITY PHENOMENA

§  Solvent –solute interactions,

§  Solubility of gas in liquids, solubility of liquids in liquids.

§  Solubility of solids in liquids: Definitions, determinations, factors influencing the solubility.

 

3

 

T-1

 

2

-

UNIT 3 (CLO1 and CLO2)

INTERFACIAL PHENOMENON

§  Liquid interfaces, adsorption at liquid/solid interfaces, adsorption isotherms

§  Concept of contact angle, hydrophilic- lipophilc balance, spreading coefficient

§  Gibb’s adsorption equation, electrical properties of interfaces

2

T-1

-

-

UNIT 4 (CLO1 and CLO2)

DIFFUSION AND DISSOLUTION

§  Steady state diffusion, types of diffusion, diffusion equation, diffusion cells Dissolution of tablets and capsules

§  Dissolution apparatus; factors affecting dissolution                                                                                             

2

T-1

 

-

-

UNIT 5 (CLO1, CLO2, and CLO3)

RHEOLOGY

§  Newtonian and Non-newtonian systems

§  Thixotropy, determinations of rheological properties (Single and multipoint instruments)

§  Applications to pharmacy                                                                                                                                        

 

      3

 T-1

 2

-

UNIT 6 (CLO1, CLO2, and CLO3)

MICROMERITICS

§  Particle size distribution

§  Methods for determining particle size

§  Shape and surface area

§  Derived properties of powders

2

T-1

 2

-

UNIT 7 (CLO1, CLO2, and CLO3)

COARSE DISPERSIONS: SUSPENSIONS

§  Definition, classification

§  Settling in Suspension, wetting

§  Controlled flocculation – flocculation in structured vehicles, Rheological consideration, preparation, physical stability and evaluation of suspensions.                      

3

T-1

2

-

UNIT 8 (CLO1, CLO2, and CLO3)

EMULSIONS

§  Formulation of emulsions-instability of emulsions, evaluation of emulsion stability

§  Selection of emulsifying agents based on HLB values

§  Rheology of emulsions, micro-emulsions, multiple emulsions        

2

T-1

2

-

UNIT 9 (CLO1 and CLO2)

COLLOIDS    

§  Definition types, preparation, purification, stabilization of colloids

§  Properties, optical properties, kinetic properties, electrical properties

2

T-1

-

-

UNIT 10 (CLO4)

Manufacturing difficulties and Stability issues of disperse systems

-

FC-3

-

-

Total hours

21

12

12

7

Total credit hour

3

18

Main references:

§  Martin A, Patrick J, (2006)Physical Pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences, Lippincott williams, New York, 5th edition. 

§  Shargel L, (2004)Applied biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics,5th edition Mc Graw hill ,New York.

Additional references:

§  Rawlins E.A., (2005)Bentley’s textbook of Pharmaceutics, Lippincott williams 8th edition

19

Other additional information

§  Nil